Upon researching the Archidoxes of Magic of Paracelsus, i came to study more closely it's relation to the Pauline Art of the Lemegeton.
My guess is that not only it was heavily influenced by the Archidoxes, but composed by the very same man who translated it into English, that is, Robert Turner, or perhaps one of his close circle.
I have four reasons for this conclusion:
1. The Seals of the Zodiac in the Ars Paulina are the same seals that Paracelsus prescribes in his archidox, On Occult Philosophy.
2. The recipes use to make these seals are of Paracelsian origin, but all the mistakes are also in the Turner translation. Joseph Peterson made up a comprehensive table, and wecan see that all translation mistakes made by Turner, turn up in the Ars Paulina. From there, every manuscript of Ars Paulina perpetuates Turner's mistakes.
3. The year 1641 is mentioned in the text, also gunpowder.
4. The Table of Practice.
In his diatribe against negromancy, Paracelsus rejects seals and signs of the spirits quite violently, but grants particular merit to two figures of astounding power:
(Paracelsus, of Occult Philosophy, chap. III, page 41, Turner translation)
We might be tempted to say that this is a quite simple pentacle, met all over. But i was not able to find one such seal, either in print or in manuscript, that dated before the publication of the Archidoxes.
The author of the Pauline art was so much of a Paracelsian, that he even denied the spirits evoked the right to have a seal, making their lamens exclusively astrological. It is my guess that the table of practice had much to thank Paracelsus... It's central figure is exactly what he descibes.
The surrounding planetary characters are taken from Grosschedel's Calendarium magicum.